The “Good Agricultural Practices (GAP or GPs) or “Best environmental management practices (BEMPs)” (Europe) or Best Management Practices, BMPs (North America) are broadly defined as ‘methods and/or practices designed to reduce or prevent soil and water pollution without affecting farm productivity’. They were developed in the 1950s as the conservation measure to combat soil erosion and were implemented as soil remediation practices for two decades prior to the first awareness and recognition that non-point source (NPS) phosphorus (P) pollution from soil run-off and erosion, fertilizer and livestock runoff results in eutrophication of water bodies in 1970s (Logan, 1993). Throughout this report the term GAP will be used to cover all other terminology related to agricultural management practices, e.g. BEMP, BMP etc.
The nutrient load from mineral extraction is generally caused by the use of explosives that contain nitrogen (N) (Revey 1996). Most minerals and rocks contain relatively low concentrations of nitrogenous compounds. Even though the nutrient load from mineral extraction is generally caused by N from the explosives, in certain cases processing phosphorous (P) minerals (phosphates e.g) can significantly increase the phosphorous load to receiving water systems and cause eutrophication. The growth limiting nutrient in receiving bodies of water may be nitrogen or phosphorous and therefore the environmental impact of certain nutrient (N or P) must be observed case by case.
Field Water Flow Determination
The water quality data can be used to create different profiles to estimate, for example, to assess the need of reduction of the loading into the waterways, as well as the drifting of different substances. Accurate and up-to-date monitoring of water quality also allows the development of water quality models.